Urethritis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the body.
Urethral syndrome; NGU; Non-gonococcal urethritis
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Urethritis may be caused by bacteria or a virus. The same bacteria that cause
urinary tract infections ( E. coli) and some sexually transmitted diseases ( chlamydia, gonorrhea) can lead to urethritis. Viral causes of urethritis include herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus.
Other causes include:
Sensitivity to the chemicals used in spermicides or contraceptive jellies, creams, or foams
Risks for urethritis include:
Being a female in the reproductive years
Being male, ages 20 - 35
Having many sexual partners
High-risk sexual behavior (such as anal sex without a condom)
History of sexually transmitted diseases Symptoms
Burning pain while urinating
Fever and chills
Frequent or urgent urination
Vaginal discharge Signs and tests
The health care provider will perform a physical examination. In men, the exam will include the abdomen, bladder area, penis, and scrotum. The physical exam may show:
Discharge from the penis
Tender and enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area
Tender and swollen penis
digital rectal exam will also be performed.
Women will have abdominal and pelvic exams. The health care provider will check for:
Discharge from the urethra
Tenderness of the lower abdomen
Tenderness of the urethra
The following tests may be done:
The goals of therapy are to:
Eliminate the cause of infection
Prevent the spread of infection
If you have an infection, you will be given antibiotics.
You may take pain relievers (including pyridium, which works on the urinary tract) along with antibiotics.
People with urethritis who are being treated should avoid sex or use condoms during sex. If an infection is the cause of the inflammation, your sexual partner must also be treated.
Urethritis caused by trauma or chemical irritants is treated by avoiding the source of injury or irritation.
Urethritis that does not clear up after antibiotic treatment and lasts for at least 6 weeks is called chronic urethritis. Different antibiotics may be used to treat this problem.
With the correct diagnosis and treatment, urethritis usually clears up without any complications.
However, urethritis can lead to permanent damage to the urethra (scar tissue called
urethral stricture) and other urinary organs in both men and women.
Men with urethritis are at risk for the following complications:
After a severe infection, the urethra may become scarred and then narrowed (
Women with urethritis are at risk for the following complications:
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of urethritis.
Some causes of urethritis may be avoided with good personal hygiene and by practicing safer sexual behaviors such as monogamy (one sexual partner only) and using condoms.
Brill JR. Diagnosis and treatment of urethritis in men.
Am Fam Physician. 2010;81:873-878.
McCormack WM. Urethritis. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds.
Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 106.
Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington School of Medicine; and Scott Miller, MD, Urologist in private practice in Atlanta, Georgia. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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